Sandstorms are a type of natural disaster. They do not cause damage to structures (need confirmation) but any Colonists and robots who are outside will be slowed down and lose Health over time.
Damage from Sandstorms can be prevented by setting a Yellow or Red Alert once a Control Center has been built.
During Sandstorms, Wind Turbines will operate at maximum capacity.
During Sandstorms, Solar Panels will cease to operate for the duration of the Sandstorm.
Telescopes with an operator will warn of approaching storms giving time for yellow alert.